Uzbekistan Hint

Uzbekistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the north, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Tajikistan to the southeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. To the west, it is bounded by the Aral Sea. The country’s strategic location has historically made it a significant crossroads of trade and culture between the East and the West.



Uzbekistan has a predominantly arid climate with hot summers and cold winters. The climate varies across regions, with desert conditions prevailing in the western part of the country and more temperate conditions in the east. Summers are characterized by high temperatures, often exceeding 40°C (104°F), while winters can be cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing.


The fauna of Uzbekistan is diverse, with a range of species adapted to its various ecosystems. Common animals include foxes, wolves, wild boars, and various species of birds. The country’s national animal is the Persian leopard, although its population is critically endangered.

Longest Rivers

The two longest rivers in Uzbekistan are the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. The Amu Darya, also known as the Oxus River, forms part of Uzbekistan’s border with Turkmenistan and flows into the Aral Sea. The Syr Darya, on the other hand, originates in the Tian Shan mountains and also flows into the Aral Sea.

Highest Mountains

Uzbekistan is characterized by its vast plains and low-lying terrain, with no significant mountain ranges within its borders. The highest peak in the country is Khazret Sultan, located in the Gissar Range near the border with Tajikistan, with an elevation of 4,643 meters (15,233 feet) above sea level.



The territory of present-day Uzbekistan has been inhabited since ancient times, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic era. The region was home to various civilizations, including the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex and the ancient cities of Samarkand and Bukhara.

Ancient and Medieval Periods

Uzbekistan was part of the Persian Empire and later the Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great. It subsequently came under the rule of various Central Asian dynasties, including the Kushans, Sassanians, and Arabs. In the 13th century, the region was conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan.

Timurid Empire

The 14th and 15th centuries saw the rise of the Timurid Empire, a Turkic-Mongol state founded by the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane). The empire was known for its cultural and artistic achievements, with cities like Samarkand becoming centers of Islamic learning and architecture.

Russian Empire and Soviet Union

In the 19th century, Uzbekistan came under Russian influence and later became part of the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Uzbekistan became a Soviet republic and remained part of the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. During this period, the country experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization but also endured periods of repression and political upheaval.


Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan declared independence on September 1, 1991. Islam Karimov, who had been the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan since 1989, became the country’s first president. Since independence, Uzbekistan has pursued a policy of gradual economic and political reform while maintaining strong centralized control.


Uzbekistan has a population of approximately 34 million people, making it the most populous country in Central Asia. The majority of the population is ethnic Uzbek, with significant minorities of Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and others. Islam is the dominant religion, practiced by the majority of the population, although there are also small communities of Christians, Jews, and others.

Administrative Divisions

Uzbekistan is divided into 12 administrative regions, known as viloyatlar, and the autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan. Each region is further divided into districts, or tumanlar, and cities, or shaharlar. The administrative divisions of Uzbekistan are as follows:

  1. Andijan Region
  2. Bukhara Region
  3. Fergana Region
  4. Jizzakh Region
  5. Karakalpakstan Republic
  6. Kashkadarya Region
  7. Khorezm Region
  8. Namangan Region
  9. Navoiy Region
  10. Samarkand Region
  11. Surxondaryo Region
  12. Tashkent Region
  13. Tashkent City

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Tashkent
  2. Namangan
  3. Samarkand
  4. Andijan
  5. Bukhara
  6. Nukus
  7. Qarshi
  8. Fergana
  9. Jizzakh
  10. Kokand

Education Systems

Education in Uzbekistan is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 18. The country has a well-established system of primary, secondary, and higher education. The top universities in Uzbekistan include:

  • Tashkent State University of Economics
  • Tashkent State Technical University
  • National University of Uzbekistan
  • Samarkand State University
  • Bukhara State University



Uzbekistan has several international airports, including:

  1. Tashkent International Airport
  2. Samarkand International Airport
  3. Bukhara International Airport
  4. Urgench International Airport
  5. Navoi International Airport


Uzbekistan has an extensive railway network, with over 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles) of track. The main railway line connects Tashkent with other major cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, and Urgench.


Uzbekistan has a well-developed network of highways, with major routes connecting cities and regions across the country. The total length of highways in Uzbekistan is approximately 50,000 kilometers (31,000 miles).


Although Uzbekistan is a landlocked country, it has access to international trade through ports in neighboring countries such as Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.

Country Facts

  • Population: 34 million
  • Capital: Tashkent
  • Language: Uzbek
  • Religion: Islam
  • Race: Ethnic Uzbek, Russian, Tajik, Kazakh, others
  • Currency: Uzbekistani soʻm (UZS)
  • ISO Country Codes: UZ, UZB
  • International Calling Code: +998
  • Top-Level Domain: .uz