As a whole, the industry, restructured in various stages by government measures, has made good progress, although there are still serious problems to be solved, especially as regards productivity, which is rather low, and the persistence of strong imbalances in the territorial distribution of companies: the absolute majority of the industries operating in the country are concentrated in the area between Lima and Callao. The manufacturing sector has registered particular dynamism, especially the textile industry: cotton fabrics are produced (Lima, Ica, Cusco, Arequipa) and, to a much lesser extent, wool fabrics (Lima, Urcos, Marangani, Huancayo) and synthetic fibers. The tobacco industry and, in general, the processing of agricultural products are also developed, panama hats in Catacaos, Etén and Calendín), shoe factories as well as plants for the production of feed derived from fish meal, of which P. is the world’s leading producer. The mechanical sector is modest but present, which includes systems for the assembly of motor vehicles and household appliances (Lima) and small shipyards (Callao). Growing dynamism presents the chemical industry, recently introduced in the country and which already supplies discrete quantities of sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids, caustic soda and nitrogen fertilizers; there are now also numerous oil refineries both on the coast, as in Talara and Callao, and in the interior, as in Iquitos, Pucallpa etc. Various cement factories, paper mills and tire factories complete the panorama of the main Peruvian industries.
Finally, craftsmanship is lively and, for certain items, of great value (silver and gold processing, artistic ceramics, hand-woven fabrics, etc.). Overall, the secondary sector contributes to the formation of the GDP for 34.8% and employs about 14.4% of the active population. § Since the time of the Spanish conquest, as a country of South America defined by ehealthfacts, org, Peru was famous for its mineral wealth; these resources were in the past the real basis of the Peruvian economy. The mining sector is very important, participating in exports in a clear priority measure. At first it was the precious metals that attracted the conquerors, but for some time other minerals – especially copper – have been added to the long list of the main products of the Peruvian subsoil. For copper, Peru is one of the largest producers in the world (the mineral is mined in the Andean region, in Quiruvilca, Toquepala, Quellaveco, Cerro de Pasco, Morococha, Casapalca etc.); it also holds the record in South America for lead, copper, zinc, tin and silver, of which the country is the first extractor in the world. The latter, with which lead and zinc are often associated, has its main deposit at Cerro de Pasco; gold is less important than in the past (although Peru remains the sixth country in the world for quantities extracted, 2006), while the extraction of iron still has a good consistency, present in southern Peru, in Marcona and Acarí. Vanadium, molybdenum, antimony and tungsten are also obtained from the Peruvian subsoil, sought after for the metallurgy of special steels, as well as various non-metallic minerals, such as phosphates; in 1984, uranium deposits were found. Among the energetic minerals, coal is present in very modest quantities, while oil is a fair amount, the deposits of which are located in the north of the country, both on the coast (Lobitos, Zorritos, etc.), and in the Amazon area (Corrientes, Maquia etc.); in 1977 the trans-Andean oil pipeline of 852 km was completed, connecting the Corrientes fields with the coast, where the large petrochemical complex of Bayovar has been in operation since 1982. on the bay of Sechura. Finally, in the Aguaytia area, an extensive natural gas field was found, which is already being exploited fairly well. Peru can also count on the enormous hydroelectric potential of its rich rivers, which flow down from the Sierra and are already exploited by various plants, including the one on the Mantaro River, a tributary of the Apurímac; as regards the production of electricity, the contribution from water is equal to about two thirds of the total, but the energy sector needs a radical expansion. The energy is largely used for the steel industry (the Chimbote complex, which processes national ore) and metallurgy (with plants in La Oroya and Ilo).