Canada Overview

Canada Overview


Official name of the state





According to ehealthfacts, Canada covers the northern part of the North American continent, with the exception of Alaska in the northwest. In the northeast, Greenland lies in front of the coast, in the west the Pacific and in the east the Atlantic. In the south, the 48th parallel forms the border with the USA. The polar cap is in the north. Arctic tundra defines the north of Canada. The center of the country consists of the wheat-growing area of the Laurentisches Tafelland. The Rocky Mountains are to the west and the Great Lake District, the St. Lawrence River and the Niagara Falls to the southeast. The country is divided into ten provinces and three territories. Canada is the second largest country in the world after the Russian Federation.


Federal constitutional monarchy (in the Commonwealth) since 1931. Constitution of 1982. Federal parliament consisting of two chambers: House of Commons with 308 elected members and Senate with 105 appointed members. The ten provinces each have a governor and regional legislation; the three territories (formerly two) are under federal administration. Québec is the only French-speaking province to have a special status (since 1992) and has the right to veto the reform of federal institutions. Independent from Great Britain since 1867.

Head of state

Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952, represented by Governor General David Johnston (since October 2010).

Head of government

Justin Trudeau, since November 2015.


120 V, 60 Hz. Two-pole flat plug. Adapters are required.

Canada Overview



The official languages are English and French.



The above public holidays are nationwide. Additional regional holidays are listed under the individual provinces.



The following items can be imported into Canada duty-free:

200 cigarettes and 50 cigars (or cigarillos) and 200 fine-cut tobacco sticks and 200 g tobacco *;
1.14 l spirits or 1.5 l wine and up to 8.5 l beer in cans / bottles of beer *;
Gifts worth up to 60 Can $ per person (excluding alcohol or tobacco products).

[*] The specified alcohol and tobacco quantities apply to persons aged 18 and over entering Alberta, Manitoba and Québec and for persons aged 19 and over entering British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia.

Import restrictions

Hunting weapons and the corresponding ammunition may only be imported with permission. Each Canadian province has its own import regulations in this regard. Animal products, seeds, meat, fruit, vegetables and other foods are subject to special import regulations. It is therefore recommended that you do not bring these with you to Canada. Certain species of turtles and Haitian animal fur items are prohibited from importing. The consular posts can provide more information (see contact addresses).

Prohibited imports

Firearms, explosives, endangered plants and animals.



43% Roman Catholic; 29% Protestants; other Christian faiths as well as Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh minorities.

Social rules of conduct

You shake hands in greeting. Friends kiss on the cheek, especially in French areas. The usual forms of courtesy apply to private visits. Clothing can be casual and climate-related, only certain clubs and restaurants expect evening wear.

Smoking: Smoking is prohibited in public buildings and means of transport as well as in rental cars. If smoking is permitted in restaurants, there are large non-smoking areas.

Tip: 10-15% is mandatory in the restaurant and at the pizza service. Porters expect i. General 1 Can $ per piece of luggage, housekeeping 1-2 Can $ per day. Waiters in bars and nightclubs are generally also given tips. Taxi drivers receive a 15% tip.


Best travel time

Those who enjoy skiing and other winter sports should visit Canada between December and April. However, some ski resorts open their doors as early as November and do not close again until June (or, as on the Whistler Glacier, not until July). If you want to enjoy the magical landscape without snow, you should travel between May and September. It should be noted, however, that after winters with heavy snowfall, some high-altitude hiking trails may be closed until July. The months of May, June and September are usually cheaper for the travel budget than July and August, with the last two months usually having the best weather.

Summer thunderstorms are common across Canada. Occasionally there are very strong thunderstorms. Tornadoes are also occasional across Canada, most commonly from May to September. The peak tornado season is June through early July in southern Ontario, Alberta, southeastern Quebec, and an area that stretches from southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba to Thunder Bay. The inland regions of British Columbia and western New Brunswick are also tornado zones. The earth shakes sometimes in the western mountains. Forest fires can happen at any time, regardless of the time of year, especially in the grasslands and forests of western Canada.


Area code +1 Area (km2) 9984670 Population 36428310 Population density (per km2) 4 Population in 2016 Member of the EU No main emergency number 911