Canadian Pacific Railway

Canada Culture and Literature

World Heritage Sites in Canada

  • Historical National Park L’Anse aux Meadows (K; 1978)
  • Nahanni National Park (N; 1978)
  • Provincial Dinosaur Park (N; 1979)
  • National parks in the border area between Alaska and Canada: Kluane, Wrangell-Saint-Elias (with USA part) and Tatshenshini-Alsek (N; 1979)
  • Anthony Island (K; 1981)
  • Abyss of the fallen bison (“Head Smashed-in Bison Jump”) south of Calgary (K; 1981)
  • Wood Buffalo National Park (N; 1983)
  • National and provincial parks in the Canadian Rockies (N; 1984)
  • Old Québec (K; 1985)
  • Gros Morne National Park (N; 1987)
  • Old town of Lunenburg (K; 1995)
  • Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park (with USA part) (N; 1995)
  • Miguasha Paleontological Park on the Gaspé peninsula (N; 1999)
  • Rideau Canal in the Province of Ontario (K; 2007)
  • Joggins Fossil Site in the Province of Nova Scotia (N; 2008)
  • Grand Pré cultural landscape in Nova Scotia (K; 2012)
  • Red Bay, historic center of Basque whaling (K; 2013)
  • Mistaken Point reserve on the island of Newfoundland (N; 2016)
  • Pimachiowin Aki forest landscape in the provinces of Ontario and Manitoba (C / N; 2018)

Canadian Literature in English (Anglo-Canadian Literature)

Canadian literature includes literary works written in French and English in Canada.

Beginnings in prose and poetry

Anglo-Canadian literature was initially shaped by prose works, and from the middle of the 19th century also by poetry. The drama did not develop on a larger scale until the 1960s. The earliest written works of Anglo-Canadian literature in prose are, in addition to the texts of the natives (“First Nations”) v. Chr. a. Expedition and travel reports (including by Samuel Hearne, * 1745, † 1792; A. Mackenzie; David Thompson, * 1770, † 1857; Simon Fraser, * 1776, † 1862), which show the encounters of Europeans or Americans with the unknown land describe.

Frances Brookes (* 1723, † 1789) “The history of Emily Montague” (1769) is considered the first “Canadian” novel. T. C. Haliburton wrote satires about the residents of Nova Scotia for the “Novascotian” using local language coloring. Catharine Parr Traill (* 1802, † 1899) and her sister Susanna Moodie, who became famous for their autobiographical stories “The backwoods of Canada” (1836) and “Roughing it in the bush” (1852), wrote about the lives of the settlers. John Richardson’s (* 1796, † 1852) historical novel »Wacousta« (1832) is about the Anglo-American wars, W. Kirbys “The golden dog” (1877) treats the time of the Anglo-French struggles for Quebec from a loyalist point of view. James De Milles (* 1833, † 1880) travel utopia “A strange manuscript found in a copper cylinder” (posthumously 1888) falls outside the scope of this literary tradition, as does Sara J. Duncan’s (* 1861, † 1922) political novel “The imperialist ”(1904). Charles W. Gordons (alias Ralph Connors, * 1860, † 1937) “The man from Glengarry” (1901), Lucy M. Montgomery (* 1847, † 1942) “Anne of Green Gables” (1908) and Mazo were very successful De la Roches chronicle of the Whiteoak family (“Jalna”, 1927). Also S. Leacocks humorous stories were very popular (“Sunshine sketches of a little town”, 1912). Martha Ostenso, Robert Stead (* 1880, † 1959) and the German-Canadian F. P. Grove wrote realistic novels about the settlement of the West. The novel also showed a regional character, for example with regard to the prairie provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Sinclair Ross (* 1908, † 1996; “As for me and my house”, 1941), W. O. Mitchell (* 1914, † 1998; “Who has seen the wind “, 1947), Adele Wiseman (* 1928, † 1992;” The sacrifice “, 1956) and John Marlyn (* 1912, † 2005;” Under the ribs of death “, 1957), Ontario with M. Callaghan (“Such is my beloved”, 1934) and Hugh Garner (* 1913, † 1979; “Cabbagetown”, 1950), Quebec with M. Richler (“Saint Urbain’s horseman”, 1971) and H. MacLennan (“Two solitudes”, 1945), who also wrote about Nova Scotia, including Ernest Buckler (* 1908, † 1984; “The mountain and the valley”, 1952). Howard O’Hagan’s (* 1902, † 1982) novel »Tay John« (1939), a myth-enriched »lie story« of the »tall tales« type, Sheila Watson’s mythical-lyrical tale »The double hook « are outside the mainstream “(1959) and A. M. Klein’s allegorical novel” The second scroll “(1951).

Founder of the first marked by such romanticism, patriotic oriented poetry were Charles Sangster (* 1822, † 1893), Charles Mair (* 1838, † 1927) and known as “Confederation Poets” D. C. Scott, C. G. D. Roberts, A. Lampman and B. Carman.

In addition to E. J. Pratt, the v. a. wrote historical narrative poems, emerged in the 1920s F. R. Scott, A. J. M. Smith, Klein (Montréal Group) and Dorothy Livesay with modernist and political poetry that continued into the 1950s. P. K. Page (* 1916, † 2010; “Cry, Ararat”, 1967), the adventurous Earle Birney (* 1904, † 1995) and I. Layton followed. Layton included everyday language and everyday matters in his impressive confessional poetry.

Canadian Pacific Railway

Canadian Pacific Railway [kə ne ɪ diən pə s ɪ f ɪ k re ɪ lwe ɪ ], abbreviation CP, also CPR, second largest railway company in Canada with 22,500 kilometers of track in Canada and the US; Headquarters until 1996 in Montreal, since then in Calgary. Founded in 1881, in just a few years it built a transcontinental railroad through Canada, which from 1887 continuously connected Montreal with Vancouver. The passenger traffic was transferred to VIA-Rail Canada in 1978. The now independent Canadian Pacific Railway was part of the multi-corporation Canadian Pacific Ltd., which was split up in 2001.

Canadian Pacific Railway