An important expedition, carried out in 1942 under the direction of Gilvandro Simas Pereira, in the Jalapão region located in central Brazil, established that the area is not the meeting point of the borders of the 4 states of Bahia, Goyaz, Piauhy, Maranhão, as was generally believed and that the Veredão, previously described as a vast lagoon, is simply a territory subject to frequent flooding, located at the watershed of the San Francisco and Amazon basins.
Population. – The state population (1940 census) is 41,236,315 units, of which 39,822,487 Brazilians, 122,735 naturalized – of which about 26,000 Italian by birth – 1,282,833 foreigners – of which 285,000 Italians – 7260 individuals of nationality not declared. From 1920, the date of the previous census (30,635,605 residents), the absolute increase was 10,600,710 units and the average annual percentage was 1.73%. This conspicuous increase resulted only in a small part from the surplus of immigrants over emigrants, having instead been determined in part predominantly by the surplus of births over the dead. The very high birth rate of the order of 45 per 1000 residents, Made such a rapid natural increase possible, despite the persistence of a high mortality rate of
As a result of this increase, the density rose from 3.60 residents to 4.9 residents per sq. km. The evaluations of the following years also recorded a continuous increase throughout the state which in 1946 would have reached 46,726,000 residents approximately. From 1940 to 1946 the numerical increase would have been 5,490,000 units, equal to 2.2% per year.
Only two cities so far exceed one million residents: according to censuses carried out at the end of 1947, Rio de Janeiro had 2,053,000 residents. and San Paolo 1,543,000 residents
According to Healthvv, the 1940 census also provides important data on Brazil’s ethnological composition. Of the total population, the Whites represented 63.5% at that time; the Negroes, 14.6%; the Asians, 0.6%. 21.1% of the population was made up of mulattoes; 41,983 individuals (0.1%) were of other races.
As for the birth, they turned out to be: Brazilians, by birth: 39,822,487, naturalized: 123,735, Portuguese: 354,311, Italians: 285,029, Spaniards: 147,897, Japanese: 140,602, Germans: 88,939, Syrians: 45,784.
These six nationalities account for 80.3% of the foreign population which in total amounts to 1,282,833 and forms 3.1% of the total population.
As for religious denominations, Catholics were 39,177,880, Protestants 1,074,857, Greek Orthodox 37,953, Buddhists 123,353 Jews 55,666, Muslims 5,053, Shintoists 2,358.
In 1940, 13,292,605 people could read and write.
Immigration. – From 1937 to 1941 105,070 individuals entered the country, with an annual average of 21,014; the phenomenon, in the years of the last war, naturally underwent a contraction but is now resuming its normal trend; in fact, in 1942, the units entered were 12,333; in 1943, 12,290; in 1944, 15,004; in 1945, 22,349.
Commerce and Communications. – Foreign trade is fundamental to the Brazilian economy. Mainly tropical products and raw materials are exported and fuels, fuels, machines and manufactured goods are imported.
The export value (5,616 million cruzeiros in 1939) rose to millions: 7,500 (1942), 8,729 (1943), 10,727 (1944), 12,197 (1945), 18,230 (1946) and 21,179 (1947). The import value (4,984 million in 1939) increased to millions: 4,693 (1942), 6,162 (1943), 7,997 (1944), 8,617 (1945), 13,029 (1946) and 22,789 (1947). The main exports, in the period 1939-47, were: coffee, cotton, cotton fabrics, hides and skins, cocoa, pine lumber, castor beans, carnaùba wax, tobacco, meats, rubber, fruit. Imports consisted mainly of the following products: wheat and wheat flour, machines and tools, motor vehicles and accessories, iron and steel, hard coal, gasoline, paper, naphtha, fruit (apples, pears and grapes), railway vehicles, wines and liqueurs, chemicals (caustic soda, soda carbonate), physical appliances, tinplate, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, copper, cement, iron pipes, wood pulp and cellulose, raw wool, rails, lead, jute, sulfur. North America (United States), South America (Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela) and Europe (England, France, Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Holland, Sweden) are the main buyers and suppliers of Brazil.
The movement of Brazilian ports had reached 51.3 million tons. gross tonnage of ships entered in 1938; during the war it decreased very strongly (in 1940: 34,710 ships entered and 34,704 exited; in 1943: 28,255 ships entered and 28,235 exited), but in 1947 it rose again to around 24 million tonnes.
The two main ports, which represent just under half of the total movement, are Rio de Janeiro (4,085 ships entered, with 7.7 million tons in 1947), and Santos (3,640 ships entered, with 5.7 million tons. in 1947). Brazil has a merchant fleet of around 500,000 tons. tonnage (fleet which was renewed with the confiscation of ships belonging to enemy countries and with the purchase of new units in the United States, Canada and England). The main company is Lloyd Brazileiro, a state-owned company.
The railway network has been underdeveloped in recent years, having gone from 34,200 km in 1939 to 35,300 in 1947. Just 3% of its length is electrified. Most of the lines are 1 m gauge. (32,000 km.); the remainder of m. 1.60 (2.200 km.) And from m. 0.60 to m. 0.76 (1,100 km.): Overall, in 1944, the railways had 3,775 locomotives and railcars, 4,605 passenger cars and 50,811 freight wagons. 41.2 million tonnes were transported in that year. of goods; 3.9 million head of cattle and 270 million passengers. In 29 cities there are urban tram services. The roads of Brazil, except for those located near major centers, are still primitive and not always passable. However. where the railway lines do not reach, important transports are carried out by means of trucks. The number of vehicles in traffic (1948) is 125,000 cars, 111,000 trucks and 7,900 buses. The overhead lines have had a great development in recent years: the lines in operation have increased, from 1941 to 1946, from 62,830 km. 107,542 km; the number of passengers went from 100,000 to 539,000, and the quantity of goods from 1,068 to 7,152 t. The busiest airports are those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; international lines for Europe, the United States and other American countries also depart from the latter. and the quantity of goods from 1,068 to 7,152 t. The busiest airports are those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; international lines for Europe, the United States and other American countries also depart from the latter. and the quantity of goods from 1,068 to 7,152 t. The busiest airports are those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; international lines for Europe, the United States and other American countries also depart from the latter.
The telegraph lines are partly operated by the state and partly by foreign companies. In 1945 the state telegraph lines had an extension of 65,658 km. In the same year, 4,440 post offices were in operation. In 1944 there were 106 radio-transmitting stations. There are about one million radio-receiving sets.