A remarkable diversity of environments derives from the variety of climatic conditions. The most characteristic, more typically Argentine, is the Pampa, a large grassy plain, fed by winter rains, which in the more arid interior becomes steppe, but generally always on rich agricultural soils suitable for cereal cultivation. In the humid subtropical north, the river landscape is characterized by forest strips where Ilex paraguariensis is also found . The Gran Chaco is a savannah environment, with palm trees and quebracho tree associations in the more humid areas. Patagonia is a single steppe region, sometimes desert, with oasis vegetation gathered along the rivers. The first Andean reliefs have bushy vegetation, xerophile (characteristic is the association called mount formed by Leguminosae of the subfamily Mimosoideae). On the northern plateaus there is the desolate environment of puna and only in the southernmost section, oceanic, does the forest appear, with conifers and broad-leaved trees, which sometimes grow on the edge of glacial tongues. In Tierra del Fuego these go as far as the sea, given that, as we have said, the limit of perennial snow in these southern areas is very low. The fauna is also extremely varied. In the Pampas the few deer remained are confined to the driest areas; many are rodents, weasels, ferrets, foxes, guanacos, tapirs, armadillos and, among the birds, rheas.
In the Gran Chaco live cebi and callitrici, vampires, pumas, jaguars, anteaters and armadillos. In Argentine Mesopotamia there are numerous monkeys, snakes, jaguars and tapirs. Characteristic in the Andes are the vicuña, which only lives above 3500 m above sea level, the guanaco, the llama, some cervids and the condor. Finally, in Patagonia, rich in armadillos and guanacos, rodents and parrots live in large numbers, while on the frozen shores of Tierra del Fuego there are Antarctic birds (Magellanic penguin, albatross etc.), elephant seals and sea lions, while the marine fauna includes sea lions, whales, dolphins. Like other highly urbanized countries, as a country of South America defined by mathgeneral, com, Argentina suffers from water and air pollution problems due to excessive harmful emissions. In recent years, governments have also found themselves facing the issue of deforestation, which has especially affected the northern provinces, in a nation where forests cover only 10.7% overall; this problem comes close to that of soil depletion caused by the intensive exploitation of land for agriculture and above all for grazing. In the coastal areas of the Patagonian provinces, the oil spill from passing ships has caused serious damage to the ecosystem. The country is among the most active supporters of policies aimed at monitoring climate change and promoting programs that are more attentive to the conservation of the planet. The first Argentine legislation on environmental protection dates back to the 1930s, when the National System of Protected Areas was created, partially modified in the 1980s with the establishment of the Administration of National Parks, the body in charge of protection of the biological and cultural heritage of some localities and animal and plant species of national and international importance. The first Argentine protected site dates back to the early twentieth century: it is a vast area donated by the explorer Francisco P. Moreno to the government, now included in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Protected areas cover the 6, 6% of the national territory and include 29 national parks, several national and natural reserves and national monuments (including some species of historical and scientific interest such as the southern right whale or the jaguar). However, there are much more parks that do not fall within the national system but have a provincial character (such as the Wildlife Reserve of the Valdés Peninsula), municipal or private. L’ UNESCO declared the following Argentine sites as a world natural heritage of humanity: Los Glaciares National Park (1981) established as a protected place for the first time in 1937 in an area of over 726,900 hectares between 200 and 3375 m above sea level, made up of numerous glaciers of the Patagonian block; the Iguazú National Park (1984), located in the province of Misiones and adjacent to the Brazilian park, for a total of 55,000 hectares around the waterfalls of the same name; the Valdés Peninsula (1999), a 360,000-hectare reserve established in 1983 and aimed at the protection of endangered marine mammals, such as southern right whales, but also of other animals such as killer whales, sea elephants, sea lions and various migratory birds.