We return to talk of France. The program payments go to work by bike, indemnité kilometrique veil (IKV), launched in 2014, testing has received evaluation of the French ADEME, Agency for energy and environment, who has recently published the conclusions.
The program IKV has attained increase significantly the use of bike and the activity physical of those employees, but has some peculiarities. Not has operated so well beyond where the transportation public is good, and not has attained lower to many users of the car: the greater part of their beneficiaries (54%) used before the transportation public and only the 5% were in car.
Modes usual of transport of the participating before the home of the program: 54% transport public, 9% motorcycle / moped, 5% car, 14% use shared of car
We are going to detail, which is where the devil.
The relationship with public transport
The IKV is in a preliminary phase and does not include any action on the environment of participating companies: is limited to offer an amount per km travelled by bicycle, approximately 25 cents (which for enterprises represents a cost of 43, including social security contributions). In addition, it was forcing users to choose between payment of public transport, relatively common in France, or the bike.
A part important of them possible users has waived to them payments by go on bike to preserve the of the transport public. The total amount to be distributed among employees had a cap set by each company, usually below the cost of public transport, so the employee perceives that it charged more if you choose the TP. The IKV force to them users to choose if want that your company les pay the transport public or them kilometers of bike, although is expected that can collect both if the tour is intermodal.
List of companies adhered to the program with number of participating
As consequence of all this, has found better reception in companies not industrial (offices, administrations public, insurance…) that in companies located in polygons, where normally the conditions for go in bike are worst. And within these, located in major agglomerations (where public transport is often work better) they have found worse response than in smaller cities, where public transport is worse.
Jobs to choose from, users prefer good public transport to bike: does not replace, but complement to public transport, there where is room for improvement in times and flexibility.
Where public transportation is better (region of Paris-Ile de France) the use of bike only grows 5%
Impact on the cast: modal and the use of bike
Evolution of the number of users of bike before and after the program
In total considered enterprises, which employ 10.160 people, declared bike users spend 200 to 419, or 176 to 296 if routine use is weighted. That is an increase of 110% in the total number of users. In percentages of the total amount of users, climb 2% to 3.6%, an increase of 70%. Now well: remains a percentage very low.
New users refer a less common use of the old bike: If veterans used bike 16-18 days a month, new only 11 use it.
Is expected that the program will help to popularize the bike also in another type of displacement, not only them labour. The impact has been moderate: veteran users do not refer change (only 14% says to use), and only 41% of the new state have begun to use the bike for other trips, 30% by the IKV and 11% for other reasons.
Impact of the IKV on the use of bike for journeys not working
The perception of the bike
Those welcomed to the IKV continue perceiving the bike of way very different according to were old or new users. There are clear parallels with the already seen in Madrid with the study of the University City. The advantages perceived by veteran users are above all practicality, economy and speed, but new users speak of improvements in health and, interestingly, greater relaxation.
Perception of the advantages of the bike, as they are new or old users.
On the drawbacks to not use the bike, old and new users agree more: complain climate and journey time. Many users new (12%) indicate that a sticks is have reached the compensation maximum, which means that pay by use has its drawbacks… They will continue to use it when the money runs out?
Drawbacks to the use of the bike according to new and old users
Impact on sedentary lifestyle and physical activity
Before the IKV 34% of new users of bike were judged insufficient physical activity; the figure falls to the 17% after starting to use it.
New users of bike: sufficient/insufficient physical activity before and after the program
Whereas the total of participating, is seen an increase remarkable of the activity physical. Now, approximately 60% already moved far enough. The 17% pass of insufficient to enough, and a 12% will move more but still without get to the minimum preferred. The 9% or increases activity, or comes to the minimum recommended.
Evolution of physical activity among participants at the IKV
This makes us ask ourselves what kind of routes run through the users and to what extent the single IKV, without further action on the environment, manages to increase the actual use of bike.
The report indicates that the IKV has positive impacts:
- On the use of bike
- On the activity physical of the workers
Considers demonstrated that the payment increases the use of bicycle. Now, also consider problems:
- It has failed to remove users to the car
- It puts the bike in competition with public transport, the structure of payments
Our conclusions are moderately positive, but also believe that this type of measures, by itself alone, does not achieve the effect desired. Continues to lack action on the environment and make it more friendly to the bicycle, so that its benefits are received without payments to users.
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